Language Families, Groups and Subgroups of Languages

Language family Group Languages or language subgroups
Indo-European
(425 languages)

Indo-Iranian
(more than 300 languages)

Bhil, Dom, Gujarati, Khandesi, Punjabi, Marwari, Romani, Hindi, Urdu, Bundeli, Bengali, Bihari, Maithili, Oriya, Nepali, Garwhali, Kumauni, Kashmiri, Kohistani, Kunar, Shina, Lahnda, Sindhi, Sinhalese, Konkani, Marathi, Sanskrit, Osetin, Pamir languages, Pashto, Baluchi, Kurdish languages, Ormuri-Parachi, Semnani, Talysh, Zaza-Gorani, Fars, Luri, Persian, Tajiki
Greek Attic, Doric
Italic Latin, Romanian, Italo-Romance languages (Emiliano-Romagnolo, Friulan, Dalmatian, Istriot, Italian, Neapolitan-Calabrese, Sicilian, Venetian), Gallo-Romance languages (Ligurian, Lombard, French, Franco-Provençal, Piemontese, Rheto-Romance languages), Ibero-Romance languages (Aragonese, Asturian, Extremaduran, Castilian Spanish, Catalan, Gascon, Languedocien, Galician, Portuguese, Mozarabic), Corsican, Sardinian
Celtic Breton, Cornish (Cornwall), Welsh, Irish Gaelic, Scots Gaelic, Manx (Isle of Man)
Germanic Gothic, Danish, Swedish, Norwegian, Faroese, Icelandic, Bavarian, German, Luxembourghish, Schwytzertütsch, Walser, Yiddish, Afrikaans, Dutch, Flemish, Saxon, English, Frisian
Baltic Latvian, Lithuanian
Slavic Belorussian, Russian, Ukrainian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Bosnian, Serbian, Croatian, Slovenian, Czech, Slovak, Polish
Albanian Gheg Albanian, Tosk Albanian, Arvanitika, Arberëshë
Armenian Armenian
Uralic
(34 languages)
Finno-Ugric Estonian, Finnish, Karelian, Lappic, Hungarian
Samoyedic Samoyedic languages
Basque
(a language isolate)
  Basque
Afro-Asiatic
(more than 350 languages)
Semitic
(more than 70 languages)
Languages spoken in Middle East and North Africa: Aramaic, Arabic, Canaanite (Hebrew, Samaritan), Ethiopian languages (Geez, Tigré, Gafat, Amharic, Harari), South Arabian languages
Berber Berber languages (Kabyle, Zenati, Tamasheq, Zenaga)
Cushitic Languages of Hamitic peoples living in Ethiopia, Somalia, Eritrea and Sudan: Dullay, Sidamo, Komso, Oromo, Afar, Somali
Egyptian Coptic (liturgical language of the Coptic Church, late development of the ancient Egyptian)
Omotic Languages spoken in Ethiopia: Dizi, Gonga, Ometo, Mao
Chadic
(almost 200 languages)
Languages spoken in Nigeria, Cameroon and Chad: Biu-Mandara, Masa, Hausa, Bole, Tangale, Angas, Yivom, Fyer, Ron, Bade, Duwai, Boghom, Guruntum, Zaar
Niger-Kordofanian
(more than 1400 languages)
Kordofanian
(31 languages)
Languages of Sudan: Kadugli, Heiban, Katla, Rashad
Manding
(58 languages)
Languages of the Sudanese group: spoken in Burkina Faso, Côte d'Ivoire, Liberia, Mali, Senegal, Guinea, Sierra Leone
Niger-Congo
(more than 1300 languages)
Languages of Atlantic Congo, languages of Volta-Congo (Mambila-Konja, Bebe, Jarawan, Mamfe, Mbam, Mbe), Bantu languages (almost 500 languages grouped in more than 50 subgroups, including Kikuyu-Kamba, Sukuma-Nyamwezi, Tongwe, Shambala (Tanzania), Swahili (Comoros Islands, Mozambique, Zaïre, Tanzania), Zigula-Zaramo, Zulu (South Africa), Xhosa, Sotho (Lesotho), Pedi (South Africa), Shona (Zimbabwe), Herero (Namibia), Kongo (Angola, Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo), Duala (Cameroon), Lingala (Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo), Kimbundu, Umbundo), Edo, Idoma, Igbo, Kainji, Nupe, Oko, Dogon, Kru, Kwa, Gur, Kulango, Lobi, Senufo, Teen, Tiefo, Tusia, Viemo, Wara-Natioro
Nilo-Saharan
(almost 200 languages)
  Central-Sudanic languages: Lendu, Mangbetu, Mangbutu-Efe, Moru-Madi, Bongo-Bagirmi
Eastern-Sudanic languages: Eastern Jebel, Nara, Nubian, Surmic
Eastern-Nilotic languages: Bari, Maasai, Lotuxo, Teso, Turkana
Southern-Nilotic languages: Kalenjin, Tatoga
Western-Nilotic languages: Dinka, Nuer, Shilluk, Maban, Burun, Saharan
Khoisan
(35 languages)
  Languages of Southern Africa spoken by Khoekhoen and San groups
Altaic
(78 languages)
Turkic Eastern languages: Ainu (China), Chagatay, Uzbek, Yugur
Northern languages: Altai, Dolgan, Karagas, Khakas, Shor, Tuvin, Yakut
Southern languages: Azerbaijani, Turkish, Turkmenian
Western languages: Kazakh, Kirghiz, Tatar
Mongolian Languages spoken in China, Mongolia, Russia: Dagur, Mongour, Buriat, Mongolian, Darkhat, Kalmyk
Tungus Languages spoken in Asian Russia, China:
Northern Tungus (Evenki, Negidal)
Southern Tungus (Nanaj, Orok, Ulch, Udihe, Manchu)
Korean
(a language isolate, considered by some linguists a member of the Altaic family)
  Korean
Japanese
(a language isolate, considered by some linguists a member of the Altaic family)
  Japanese, Ryukyuan languages
Chukotko-Kamchatkan   5 languages spoken in Asian Russia
Sino-Tibetan
(360 languages)
Chinese
Gan, Hakka, Huizhou, Jinyu, Mandarin, Min Bei, Min Dong, Min Nan, Min Zhong, Pu-Xian, Wu, Xiang, Yue, Dungan
Tibeto-Burman
(345 languages)
Kachinic (Myanmar); Bodo, Garo, Konyak, Lushai (India); Chin, Naga (Myanmar, India); Bodic, Tibetan languages, Himalayish languages, Newari (Nepal, Tibet, India); Karen (Myanmar, Thailand); Lolo, Qiang (Southern China)
Daic
(68 languages)
  Kadai languages (China and Viet Nam)
Kam-Sui languages (China)
Tai languages (China, Viet Nam, Thailand, Myanmar, Laos)
Austro-Asiatic
(180 languages)
  Mon-Khmer languages (Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, Viet Nam, Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar)
Munda languages (India)
Austronesian
(more than 1200 languages)
  Formosan languages (Taiwan)
Western Malayo-Polinesian (Borneo, Chamorro, Meso Philippine, Northern Philippine, Palauan, Sama-Bajaw, South Mindanao, Southern Philippine, Sulawesi, Sundic, Yapese)
Central Eastern Malayo-Polinesian (Admiralty Islands, Papua New Guinea, Central Pacific, Micronesian, New Caledonian, North and Central Vanuatu, South Vanuatu, Southeast Solomonic, Meso Melanesian, North New Guinea)
South Halmahera-West New Guinea
Andamanese   Languages of the Andaman Islands in the gulf of Bengala
Australian
(more than 270 languages)
  Pama-Nyungan languages
Non-Pama-Nyungan languages spoken in North Western Australia and the Northern Territory
Eskimo-Aleut   11 languages spoken by peoples living on the arctic and subarctic coast of continental America and the extreme strip of North Eastern Siberia: Aleut, Inuit, Yupik
Na-Dene
(42 languages)
  Languages spoken by native peoples of Canada and some peoples of  South Western United States: Kiowa Apache, Navajo Apache, Mescalero Chiricahua, Beaver Sekani, Chipewyan, Koyukon, Mattole Wailaki, Tolowa Galice, Tahltan Kaska, Tanana, Tutchone, Eyak, Tlingit
Amerindian
(more than 600 languages)
 Algic (Canada, USA): Cree, Ojibwa, Chippewa, Arapaho, Blackfoot, Cheyenne, Wiyot, Yurok
Andean-Equatorial  (Mexico, Central and South America): Alakaluf, Arawak, Aymara, Cofan, Garifuna, Guarani, Jivaro, Ona, Pasto, Quechua, Siriono, Tariana, Tucano languages, Tupi-Guarani languages, Wanano, Yaghan
Caddoan  (USA): Pawnee, Wichita
Chibchan  (Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, Honduras, Costa Rica): Aruak, Chibcha, Tunebo, Cofan Guaymi, Kuna, Motilon, Paya, Rama, Talamanca
Hokan  (Mexico, USA): Esselen, Yuman, Karok-Shasta, Pomo, Yana, Salinan-Seri, Tequistatlecan, Washo
Iroquoian  (Canada, USA): Mohawk, Oneida, Seneca, Onondaga, Huron, Tuscarora, Cherokee, Susquehannock
Macro-Ge  (Brazil): Bororo, Botocudo, Chiquito, Fulnio, Ge-Kaingang, Guato, Kamakan, Karaja, Maxacali, Opaye, Puri, Rikbaktsa, Yabuti, Oti
Mayan  (Belize, Guatemala, Mexico): Cholan, Tzeltalan, Huastecan, Chujean, Kanjobalan, Mocho, Ixilan, Mamean, Kekchi, Pocom, Quichean, Sacapulteco, Sipacapeno, Uspantec, Mopan-Itza, Yucatec-Lacandon
Mixe-Zoque  (Mexico): Mixe, Zoque
Muskogean  (USA): Muskogee, Choktaw, Chickasaw
Oto-Manguean  (Mexico): Amuzgoan, Chiapanec-Mangue, Chinantecan, Cuitatec, Mixtec, Trique, Chichimec, Matlatzincan, Mazaua, Otomi, Pame, Chocho, Popolocan, Ixcatecan, Mazatecan, Chatino, Zapotec
Penutian  (USA): Chinookan, Maiduan, Coosan, Siuslawan, Yakonan, Kalapuyan, Takelma, Klamath-Modoc, Sahaptin, Tsimshian, Utian, Yokuts
Salishan  (Canada, USA): Halkomelem, Nooksack, Squamish, Straits, Twana, Tillamook, Tsamosan
Siouan  (USA): Catawaba, Mandan, Chiwere, Dakota, Dhegiha, Winnebago, Crow, Hidatsa, Biloxi, Ofo, Tutelo
Uto-Aztecan  (USA, Mexico): Hopi, Comanche, Panamint, Shoshoni, Ute, Paiute, Nahuatl, Cahita, Corachol, Tarahumaran, Tepiman, Tubar
Wakashan  (Canada): Nootka
Caucasian
(almost 40 languages)
South Caucasian (Georgia, Turkey): Georgian, Svan, Laz, Mingrelian
North Caucasian (European Russia, Azerbaijan, Georgia): Batsi, Chechen-Ingush, Andi, Avar, Dido, Lak-Dargwa, Lezgian, Abkhaz-Abazin, Circassian, Ubix
Dravidian
(78 languages)
  Very ancient language family once widespread in India (Indus civilisation, Mohenjo-daro, Harappa), limited today to the southern region of the Indian peninsula: Kolami-Naiki, Parji-Gadaba, Gondi, Konda, Manda-Kui, Telugu, Kannada, Kodagu, Malayalam, Tamil, Toda-Kota, Tulu
Burushaki
(a language isolate)
  Language spoken in the Hunza valley, in Pakistan. It seems to have no relations with any other known language.

 

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